Gravity and The Unified Theory                                           
The Physical Means of How Gravity Works and at last, The Unified Theory.

Author: Eric Sabo East Haddam, CT
The Atom
Magnetism Revealed
Electromagnetism added as a continuation 4/8/2009

 

The Atom

Author; Eric Sabo, East Haddam, Ct.

Mar 1, 2009

 

 

 

 

         In 1913 Neils Bohr, based on Rutherford’s 1911 model, suggested that electrons orbit the atom’s nucleus like the planets in the solar system. To this day, there is no photographic evidence that this is a true statement. (I do, however subscribe to it.) Wolfgang Pauli introduced Quantum Mechanics in 1925 to rectify inadequacies in the Rutherford-Bohr model. Pauli proposes that electrons pair up in energy levels. What immediately jumps out is why would two negatively charged particles pair up at all unless they were in orbit 180° from each other. If they are assigned an opposite spin, conveniently, pairing becomes possible.

 

 

         Scientists always have a need to have everything fit into neat quantitative packages. This is true in electron configuration, sub-atomic particles, and quark models. Myself, I think that Henri Poincaire’s Dynamical Chaos comes into play more than not. More accurately, it’s all about Dynamical Chaos that manages to fall into parameters. The thought occurs to me that in the case of the Hydrogen atom, if we bring the halflet scenario into play, and incorporating Quantum Mechanics, it becomes possible the electron manifests itself as a spinning cloud of its halflets. The electron becomes a quantity of halflets.

 

 

 

         The cloud finds the radius as the balance point between repulsion, attraction and centrifugal force. The cloud could change shape depending upon the atoms role in molecular construction. An electron then takes particle form when pulled out of the cloud to form a molecular bond. Also, when a photon strikes the cloud, it is absorbed, expanding the cloud. Too much expansion and an electron mass then pops out creating havoc. To rejoin the cloud, either a photon or more has to be re-emitted or a chemical bond is formed.  

         As far as EM spectral emissions go, electrons pop in and out of the cloud emitting the photons necessary to produce the emissions depending on the atom, cloud size and density.  Not suggesting any should change horses midstream but, I think that nothing can be discovered when trying to look at the atom from a Quantum Mechanical perspective. The Rutherford-Bohr model becomes a useful tool that allows comprehension of the electron quantity to unfold. One should be always mindful that Quantum Mechanics is the underlying operational system. Here is an idea drawn up with a drafting program with the cloud displayed as electron masses. This becomes useful to illustrate atomic balance. It seems logical the cloud would possess some gyroscopic stability. 
        
With Helium we see;
 

 

                    The Helium atom is balanced like a gyroscope, therefore stable. It is possible that electron arrangement changes to become the most gyroscopically stable to fit each atoms role in any given situation. When we move up to 3Li-6, that’s where Poincaire’s Dynamical Chaos comes into play again. The cloud is not given to symmetry. It is at best an unhappy arrangement;


 

 

         It becomes apparent that 1, 2 and 3 electrons are the magic numbers for valence electrons. After that groups of 4 and combinations of 4 and 2 electrons are the stable elements. 1 electron quantity up or down and fireworks happen.

 

         Lithium is highly reactive. Put some Li in water and LiOH is quickly formed. When it comes to chemical bonding, the shared electron quantity no longer travels in the shell. The electron quantity exists as a particle at a point 2x normal electron shell. The Lithium two unshared then pair and gyroscopically stabilize. LiOH is still reactive. It seems possible that the distribution of  charge on the surface of any nucleus could vary to fit any given situation.

 

 

         Moving up to 4Be-5, it  has 4 electrons. With proposed 4 electrons orbiting in equal distribution to one another. It looks pretty stable. It becomes obvious that all electron quantities in any atom all exist in one shell.Their distribution is governed by their relation to one another and influenced by surrounding atoms.

 

 

 

         If we could go back to hydrogen, we must address diatomic Hydrogen. This arrangement arises. Notice the distribution of charges on the nuclear surface that prevents more than a diatomic arrangement from forming. The two hydrogen share the two electrons in a bond that is not as strong as a molecular bond. It is a secondary bond.

    Diatomic Nitrogen;

        Diatomic Oxygen;

        If we look at the water molecule;

 

         Where is the 105° angle? Because we are looking at a single atom there is none. If the universe consisted of  one water molecule, the above is what it would probably look like. Most likely, the above is what it looks like in vapor form. As cooling occurs, the distance between the nuclei decreases. Below would be the liquid where the molecular bonds wobble and flex, cushioned by the rest of the electrons. In these configurations the molecule is actually sort of tri-polar, with 2 positive ends and a negative center doughnut;

 

         It’s in the solid form that the 105° angle appears. The angle is caused by the surrounding atoms and decreased space between atoms;

 

         The bottom line is, electron shell shape and molecular configuration is influenced by all the surrounding atoms.

 

         Where we are going with this is the Iron atom. With all the electrons in one shell with equal distribution, I have four electrons per orbit in six orbits (24) and the last two in black (making 26) all running in sync. It looks pretty stable with the pair of 2 being the oddball. It does not exist in the real world as it is usually bound to something.

 

 

 

         We are led to the following to explain magnetism. Apparently, above 912°C, the crystal structure of iron is Face Centered Cubic. (FCC) This is the best rendition I could come up with. Bear with me. The center of the face has the atom with 22 orbiting electrons (5 groups of 4, a pair, and four bonding = 26) In these drawings the remaining orbiting electron quantities become irrelevant to the process.


 

           At 912°C, the crystal structure changes to Body Centered Cubic. It’s at this point that Poincaire’s dynamical play into the operation. To go from FCC to BCC, The number of bonds between atoms goes from 4 to 8. In the transition, 4 electrons have to make the jump. But which 4 will it be? I suggest it is a random call. But, before it is settled, more than four start to make the jump. I have chosen the four blue and the black pair. They start to leave orbit.

 

 

 

         Suppose the four blue are accepted as the bonds. The black pair have started to make the jump also. The black pair continues on and lands mid-point between the adjacent nuclei. They then orbit around an apparent nuclear vortex created mid-point by the adjacent nuclei forming a secondary bond not unlike H2, N2, and O2. In BCC structure only 16 electrons remain in orbit. (16 + 8 bond + black pair =26)

         Because there is still too much energy in the crystal the black pair is oscillating and wobbling. Also, the transition proceeds in two directions – horizontal and vertical. As the iron cools, the space between atoms decreases. At this point we have some secondary bonding black pairs at the left and some at the top. When the Curie point (770°C) is reached, the spacing and relation of all the atoms become tuned to stabilize the black pairs. Because magnetism is self reinforcing, the black pairs begin to align themselves locally. The alignment grows and cascades through the iron (probably in the direction of greatest length) and the iron becomes magnetic all by itself. At this point, it is a pretty delicate balance.

         As cooling and contracting progresses in a non uniform manner, the black pair jumps to find a more accommodating location and the iron demagnetizes.

        Eventually at room temperature, the black pairs have stabilized in various directions. Whole regions have aligned to form domains. But overall, they are not pointed in the same direction. Take an iron bar and put 100 VDC potential across it for a few seconds, and all the black pairs migrate to the same face and voila! A magnet!

         There is a void at the right face centers and protrusion at the left. Thus North and South poles are produced and reinforced by each atom in the line. Place an iron bar at one end and it becomes an extension of the magnet. Leave the bar there long enough and it retains some alignment.


        
Bang on a magnet (compressing and deforming the structure) or heat it (add energy), the pairs jump out of alignment and focus is lost.
Here is an end view;

 

  

      

Electromagnetism

Author; Eric Sabo, East Haddam, Ct.

April 5, 2009

www.howgravityworks.org

 

            It was originally suggested by Ernest Rutherford in1911 that the electrons orbited the nucleus like the planets of the solar system. Described as; A diffuse cloud of negatively charged electrons surrounding a small, dense, positively charged nucleus. The planetary-model atom had a technical difficulty. The following is from Wikipedia;

            The laws of classical mechanics (i.e. the Larmor formula), predict that the electron will release electromagnetic radiation while orbiting a nucleus. Because the electron would lose energy, it would gradually spiral inwards, collapsing into the nucleus. This atom model is disastrous, because it predicts that all matter is unstable.

            Also, as the electron spirals inward, the emission would gradually increase in frequency as the orbit got smaller and faster. This would produce a continuous smear, in frequency, of electromagnetic radiation. However, late 19th century experiments with electric dischargesthrough various low-pressure gasses in evacuated glass tubes had shown that atoms will only emit light (that is, electromagnetic radiation) at certain discrete frequencies.

            To overcome this difficulty, Neils Bohr proposed, in 1913, what is now called the Bohr model of the atom. He suggested that electrons could only have certain classical motions:

  1. The electrons can only travel in special orbits: at a certain discrete set of distances from the nucleus with specific energies.
  2. The electrons do not continuously lose energy as they travel. They can only gain and lose energy by jumping from one allowed orbit to another, absorbing or emitting electromagnetic radiation with a frequency ? determined by the energy difference of the levels according to the Planck relation.
  3. The frequency of the radiation emitted at an orbit of period T is as it would be in classical mechanics; it is the reciprocal of the classical orbit period.

            Now, it is 2009 and much more has been discovered. But the mass of information is all in bits and pieces scattered here and there with nothing to bring everything together. For example; A free neutron decays by beta in just under 15 minutes. This gives an electron and a proton. This indicates that the proton doesn’t really want that electron back. Does no one find that odd? It seems the neutron is much more satisfied existing as an electron and a proton. (Hydrogen)  Still, the question of the Larmor formula debacle remains.

         There is one way out. It becomes apparent that electrons can exist in dual states, that of a particle and wave. Observe the Feynman diagram.

 

         This drawing is ambiguous at best in that they go on to state that two or more photons are produced. After drawing up the iron atom an encountering the difficulty trying to distribute the electrons symmetrically, it became apparent the simplest way out is that the electron quantities exist in obit as their obvious components thus eliminating all the complications that electron particles present;

 

 

         To reiterate; the cloud finds the radius as the balance point between repulsion, attraction and centrifugal force. The cloud could change shape depending upon the atoms role in molecular construction. An electron then takes particle form when pulled out of the cloud to form a molecular bond. Also, when a photon strikes the cloud, it is absorbed, expanding the cloud. Too much expansion and an electron mass then pops out creating havoc. To rejoin the cloud, either a photon or more has to be re-emitted or a chemical bond is formed.

 

 

         As far as EM spectral emissions go, electrons pop in and out of the cloud emitting the photons necessary to produce the emissions depending on the atom and cloud size and density.  Not suggesting any should change horses midstream, I think that nothing can be discovered when trying to look at the atom from a Q-M perspective. The Rutherford-Bohr model becomes a useful tool that allows comprehension of the electron quantity to unfold.

 

         After drawing up the iron atom and magnetic speculation, the need to address electromagnetism is obvious. For that, we must look at the electron and its field. As a boy, I recall wrapping an insulated copper conductor around a large nail, applying voltage and an electromagnet was created. When the voltage was removed, the nail remained somewhat magnetized. As an electrician, having installed thousands of relays, contactors, and motor starters, I was inclined to do some disassembly of all of them. Inside you find an iron core composed of thin laminations to prevent eddy currents and hysteresis loops. It’s amazing how so much progress was achieved by trial and error from a macro viewpoint. After many years of reflection and drawing up the iron atom, I offer the following explanation;

 

         An electron flowing through a conductor is pushed by the preceding electron. This distorts all the moving electrons fields increasing strength perpendicular to the direction of flow;

 

 

 

         The greater the push, the greater the result in field compression is achieved. As the fields are cumulative, an overall field surrounds the current carrying conductor. So, as we wrap the insulated conductor around our iron nail, the field travels around and through the nail parallel to the nail.

 

 

         This does two things to the iron atoms in the nail. First it aligns all the black pairs to the same face that presents the least resistance to the field;



        
Second, travelling parallel to the nail,  it compresses the remaining electron quantities orbiting the atoms forcing some or all of them to achieve particle status and orbit the nucleus in the direction that presents the least resistance to the rotating field which is perpendicular to the length of the nail. The two actions combined cause the dramatic increase in magnetism. Electromagnets can be very powerful.

 

        

         Disconnect the current from the conductor around the nail and most of the black pairs remain causing the residual magnetism and the rest spring back to their original configuration.

 

 

 

Thank you for your time,

         Eric Sabo