Gravity and The Unified Theory                                           
The Physical Means of How Gravity Works and at last, The Unified Theory.

Author: Eric Sabo East Haddam, CT
The Unified Theory

In developing The Unified Theory, Gravity must be dealt with first.

The Physical Means of How Gravity Works
September 22, 2006

Yes! Your first instinct in your first physics class was correct.
There are four fundamental forces. Look at this table;


   If we look at the gravitational force, we find the hypothetical and yet, unobserved particle, the graviton.
We also see the electromagnetic force and gravitational force have remarkably similar attributes.

After standing back, looking at this chart and because of the lack of evidence
of the existence of the graviton, we see that the electromagnetic force and gravitational force
are different versions of the same force.

How could it be that Gravity is electromagnetic in nature? Electromagnetic force and Gravitational force
both have an infinite range.

In an atom the positive and negative components cancel out.
The argument is;

Orbits are an equilibrium of forces. One aspect of inequality is mass differences,
but the forces are equal and opposite in Newton
's mechanics”.
That is correct inside any particular atom, or if there were only one atom in the universe.
Because the electromagnetic (electrostatic) range is infinite,
there is a very slight attraction between atoms.

So, gravity is simply the weak electrostatic attraction between atoms. Its that simple.
 It's all electrostatics!

The Attractive forces exceed the Repulsive forces because
the Attractive Forces are coupled together and work in concert.
The Repulsive forces are not coupled and do not work together.
It's like two against one. But the repulsive also keep everything from collapsing.

The gravitational force would be a small amount of force per atom. (10-41
)
This amount would vary depending upon the mass of each individual atom. 
If the moon was made of Lithium, it would have less gravity than
if it  was made of Uranium.

In the case of an object the size of a baseball, it would be an insignificant force.
But, on a planetary scale, it would amount to an overwhelmingly significant force.
As demonstrated, the larger the body the greater the Gravitational Force.

To experience how attractive forces and repulsive forces interact with each other,
get two magnets and push the two N together. Notice how they deflect.
Now try N to S and you will see they are always locked in because they work together.


 
Use your imagination. Think of it on the atomic level.
I think that nothing can be discovered when trying to look at the atom from a Quantum Mechanical perspective. The Rutherford-Bohr model becomes a useful tool that allows comprehension of the electron quantity to unfold.

I think that nothing can be discovered when trying to look at the atom
from a Quantum Mechanical perspective.


One must be mindful that Q-M remains to be the underlying operating system.
 
Observe the two, three, and four Hydrogen Atom Systems;



The reason the gravitational force is so weak is demonstrated by the following
animation. You are looking at a hydrogen atom from the electron orbiting plane.

This produces a phasing effect that varies depending upon angle of view.

The following is a crude animation of how the gravitational aether would progress
from a three hydrogen atom gravitational system. The aether is three dimensional.



So now all the following arises;

1. Gravity arises from each and every atom. Because the electromagnetic force is infinite all the positives
attract the all negatives in a system and vice versa.
The attractive forces exceed the repulsive forces because they are coupled and work together.
The force is small per atom.
(10-41 ) decreasing by the square as the distance doubles.
It is the subtle action of each and every individual atom in a system on each other.
The atoms closest to you under your feet are having the most effect
and as you travel away from the earth, it all appears as a point source.
 

2. It explains why interstellar clouds of Hydrogen form, coalesce, collapse and form stars.                      

3. At the center of the Earth, there is immense pressure but ZERO gravity.            
                    



4. A “Gravity Null Point” exists at the center of the Earth where all the attractive  forces cancel each        
other radially. All we have to do is send a gravimeter down the deepest oil well and take a few readings. 

5. The Moon affects the Earth’s Gravity Null Point. The Earth’s actual Gravity Null Point is slightly off center
in the Earth because of the Moon’s influence and should somewhat affect the spin of the Earth’s core.
(It is interesting to note that the Gravity Null Point for the Pluto/Charon
system may exist near or outside the crust of Pluto.)


6. The high tide on the side of the Earth opposite the Moon should be a little bit less than the Moon side  
because the Moon’s gravitational attraction has a canceling effect on the Earth’s field on the Moon side.
This changes the effective gravitational shape of the Earth.
Thus decreasing gravity on the side away from the Moon

5.  Water goes down the drain in a vortex in the counter clockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere,
and clockwise direction in the Southern Hemisphere. (Near the Equator, it goes straight down)
Low pressure weather systems go counter clockwise and High pressure systems clockwise
in the Northern Hemisphere and vice versa in the Southern Hemisphere.
Here's why; (From Martian Dust Devils Page)




Electron Rotation aligns itself to the Local Gravitational Plane.
Because gravity is electromagnetic in nature, all polar molecules
and other statically charged particles form vortices.
Furthermore, the gravitational attraction between planets is manifested
in a manner consistent with magnetic lines of flux.

 

This causes the attraction to be greater than expected.
In also is the reason that all vortices are counter clockwise in
the northern hemispheres of all the planets.
(Planets in alignment for convenience)

The above is also the reason the Solar System and galaxies are disc shaped.
The gravitational attraction is a total system dynamic action.
The Sun is still the boss, but everything else adds in. For example;
Jupiter is not revolving around just the sun, but the sum
of everything on the solar side of it's orbit.


            Early on in the website endeavor, I had received an email from someone anonymous and the subject was “Gravity Bumber” and simply said “All things fall at the same time.” My reply was “I assume you meant Bummer” and suggested spell check. I assumed he meant rate. I then said “the difference in mass between a feather and a bowling ball in a vacuum with respect to the gravitational field of the Earth was zero.” I thought that was sufficient and sounded like a good answer and I never gave it much thought after that.

 

            But then the other day, I was watching “The top 100 discoveries in physics” on the science channel. This show had “Bill Nye the Science Guy” talking about gravity and how all things fall at the same rate. He was at a site where a large vacuum chamber was constructed in order to drop objects of different sizes to accurately measure their rate of fall. The sizes ranged from small items to 5 tons. It started me thinking that maybe a more detailed explanation was in order.

 

            If we recap the gravity explanation; It’s a dynamical chaotic residual. It’s weak incoherent magnetism. Think of it as each atom in a body is a tiny spinning magnet. They’re not all pointed in the same direction. They can’t be made to do so. That’s where the “Dynamical Chaos” comes into play. It takes a tremendous number of atoms for the gravitational field to be of consequence. Like something the size of the earth. Because the electromagnetic range is infinite, all the individual positive components in one body attract the individual negative in another, and vice versa. All of the individual positives repel all the individual positives All of the individual negative, repel the individual negative but this is at a lesser quantity than the attractive force. This is because the attractive are locked into each other and the repulsive deflect. Observe;

The repulsive forces however, are at action in the gravitational process. That’s why things don’t fall at the speed of light. The reason all things fall at the same rate is this;

 

 

 

            As a bowling ball or the 5 ton weight is hanging in Bill Nye’s vacuum chamber by the suspension cable, they have a weight that can be measured by a load cell in line with the cable. This is because all the atoms in the suspended weight are chemically bound and are grouped. The sum of the group is its weight. The instant the cable is released, the object becomes weightless. It doesn’t matter how many atoms are in the object at this point because the gravitational Aether acts on each individual atom contained in the object. The gravitational Aether having attractive and repulsive components with the attractive overcoming the repulsive because they work together, has a set rate of attraction that acts on the individual atoms in the falling body. The repulsive does the same. The more atoms, the attraction and repulsion increase proportionally at the same time. It is of no consequence how many atoms are in the body because gravity acts on each individual atom in a body. It is only when the body comes to rest on the surface, that the object can be again weighed. All falling objects have a weight equal to zero. They all weigh the same while falling, no matter what their mass.

 

            The rate of fall is set by the repulsive forces. The best analogy is the World Trade Center collapse. When the top section fell, it didn’t shoot straight to the ground. It had to crush its way through the supporting structure below. This slowed the decent, but the decent proceeded none the less.

                                                               

Therefore one can make the wild statement;

Magnetism and Gravity are related because they are both a function of the Aether.
(See "The Atom" Page)

It's all electrostatics. Magnets are commercially produced by stacking iron bars in a device and ~100VDC is applied for a few seconds aligning all the iron atoms. It's coherent gravity. It's not focusing gravity, but it is it's own independent aether. When you place that piece of paper over a magnet and pour on the iron filings, lines of flux appear. But, they are not really lines of flux. The lines are formed as channels as the filings link together. The aether is really uniform as it would seem to logically propagate from each individual atom, channel through the magnet and all exit at one end, bend around and return to the other side.

To sum it up, you're holding an Iron bar. You give it a toss. It hits the ground.
You pick it up and put ~100VDC potential across it and its a magnet.
You give the magnet a toss and it hits the ground.
It's still a magnet, maybe it lost a little strength from the shock of
hitting the ground, but it's still a magnet. Iron's atomic arrangement
makes it the major element that is conducive to the process.
It's a focused Aether operating independent of the Gravitational Aether.


The Earth’s core is Iron. If there is zero gravity there, the Iron collected
there because of its magnetic tendency when the Earth was formed.
The heavier elements exist in the upper crust.

In fact, it is most likely to be discovered that all the planets
have an iron core, even the gaseous giants.

To me, all things are basically simple. Gravity is simple.
It's incoherent magnetism - the dynamical chaotic residual thereof.
The reason the source of gravity has not been revealed for so long is simple.
Ever since Einstein's 1905 "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies" it has
become the goal to emulate the format in his paper.
A picture is worth a thousand words and maybe 100,000 math formulas.
Gravity must be visualized as a mechanical system that can be then described by mathematics.

Now a question arises;

Why is light affected by gravity?
(see Matter- Antimatter and Subspace pages)

We believe Photons are actually particles. The basic particle that matter is made of.
Visible light is comprised of Photons. They are tiny packets of energy. X-Rays and Gamma Rays are also Photons.
It must be that Photons are packets containing small positive and negative charges rapidly revolving around each other.
The size of the charges varies and probably determines the revolution rate or frequency. Sizes range from infra-red,
visible light, ultraviolet, radio, X rays, to Gammas.They endlessly rotate until interacting with another force or body
causing them to give up charge and change their frequency. What we are saying is that Photons are actually Particles.
They travel as such at (c) in vacuo until encountering a medium and the they travel through the medium appearing as
a disturbance in the medium. Photons travel at different speeds in different media.
Some media are better "conductors" than others.

It would explain gravitational influence on starlight traveling through space.
The photon's positive is attracted by a system negatives
and it's negative attracted by a system positives.
 
Now another question arises and it’s a serious one;

Why is there gravity in a “Neutron Star”
 where there are no atoms?
 
To answer that question we have to look closely at the Neutron.
 
The Neutron is obviously, as evidenced by beta decay, a two component particle
containing both positive and negative charges.
(See Nuclear Fission Page)
 
Beta decay occurs in certain unstable isotopes. An Electron pops out of the isotope’s
nucleus leaving a Proton in that nucleus. This creates a new element.
And, it’s the next one up on the Periodic Table of the Elements.

So apparently, positive and negative charges are bound together in the Neutron.

So, the answer to the above question must be that the positive and negative charges
that are bound together in the Neutron still perform the gravitational function
as if they were Hydrogen atoms.
(This would mean that along with every individual Proton and Electron,
all Neutrons also contribute to the gravitational equation.)
 


What are Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons made of?


For this we have to be a little practical.

Do you have a golf ball?

Bounce it on the floor a few times.

Hold it between your thumb and forefinger and look at it.
Now, say to yourself, “This is a Proton”.

Now ask yourself, “What is that thing made of?”

You might say Quarks. But then, what are Quarks made of?

We are beginning to think that Quarks are semi random fragments of Proton that are artificially created,
non naturally occurring particles that may not really play into the natural scheme of things.
 
They do however demonstrate that a Proton can be broken up.
 
So what are Protons, Neutrons, and electrons made of?

Well, there can be only one answer, --- Photons.

(See Matter-Antimatter Page)

Photons with their positive and negative components locked together.

Now, you might say OK, how many photons are in my Proton?

Well, there is only one possible answer;

Precisely the ½ the yield of an encounter
with its Antimatter counterpart.

So now all of this brings us to the reason why all atoms are roughly the same size.

It does seem strange but, it is a fact. It would seem to demonstrate that Protons and Neutrons apparently do not
have an absolute, predetermined, and unwavering size. Now, if Protons and Neutrons are made of Photons
with their positive and negative components locked together, the nucleus would be subject
to the same gravitational scenario that we have proposed.

The more positive and negative components in the nucleus, the greater the compression or even better,
internal neutrons get smaller and smaller as atomic number increases.
(See Matter-Antimatter page)

Now we are led to this question;

How and where is matter ever created?

(See Matter Antimatter Page)

And then, what is a Black Hole?

When the nova or supernova creates a Neutron Star, a mass of Neutrons is left remaining at the center.
Sometimes, they are kicked out of the center of the event. Nova and supernova events  Are natural events.
All natural events are somewhat random and chaotic. The weather is a good example.

Most likely, the collapse of a star in the nova or supernova event may not proceed in a perfectly
symmetrical manner. The collapse is a little off center and “boom”, off goes the “Neutron Star”.

In the case of the Black Hole, the Supernova event is so massive that even neutrons cannot exist.
The Black Hole is probable a single Neutron type body of indeterminate size; call it “The Singularity”.

So if we might recap.

The Electromagnetic Force and the Gravitational Force are actually the same force. (The Electrostatic Force)

So, what of the strong force and the weak force?
The Neutron, with its positive and negative components lock together in the center of the nucleus leaving
the protons at the surface where their charge is balanced by the atoms electrons.
In the smaller elements, the Neutron’s positive component resides at the surface.
Observe the following drawings;
(The below drawings are being revised after 8/25/2008)

The drawings are a bit crude, but illustrate the point.
And the point is;

The nucleus is actually held together
by the Electromagnetic (Electrostatic) Force.


We therefore submit;

1. That there are not any Strong, Weak, or    
Gravitational forces at all. Only different 
expressions of the Electromagnetic Force.

2. The Electromagnetic Force stands alone and
should be renamed "The Electrostatic Force". 
The Electromagnetic force is the Electrostatic force in motion.

3. The Photon is the basic building block of the universe. 

4. This is the “Unified Theory”.
                     

Our goal in all of this is to hopefully bring out a few new ideas and possibly give others a different perspective on things.


For an even more detailed view on many of these subjects go to 
www.wbabin.net and view Walter Babin's papers.

Thank you for your time.